Kỳ thi tuyển lớp 10 gần kề, nhưng bạn vẫn chưa nắm chắc cách viết các dạng câu tường thuật (hay câu trực tiếp và gián tiếp). Đừng lo lắng, Tienganhcaptoc tổng hợp nhanh đến bạn ngữ pháp chi tiết, ví dụ dễ hiểu và bài tập câu tường thuật lớp 9 từ cơ bản đến nâng cao.
Cùng ôn tập bạn nhé!
Hiểu về Câu tường thuật trong tiếng Anh
Câu tường thuật (Reported Speech) hay có tên khác câu trực tiếp gián tiếp, là loại câu được sử dụng để thuật lại một sự kiện hoặc lời nói của ai đó. Trình bày cách dễ hiểu hơn, câu tường thuật là chuyển hóa thông tin trực tiếp tại sự kiện nào đó thành lời kể đến một người thứ 3 (không chứng kiến).
Tường thuật câu phát biểu (Reported statements)
S + say(s)/said hoặc tell(s)/told + (that) + S + V.
Bước 1: Lựa chọn động từ tường thuật thích hợp
Trong tiếng Anh khi tường thuật một lời phát biểu của ai đó trong quá khứ, bạn chỉ cần dùng 2 động từ said (Simple past của say, nghĩa là nói) và told (quá khứ đơn của tell, nghĩa là nói với ai đó.
- John said that he is very busy (Max nói ra rằng anh ấy đang rất là bận).
- Jamie told me she liked me (Jamie nói với tôi rằng cô ấy thích tôi).
Ngoài said và told, còn có thể sử dụng nhiều từ khác để miêu tả rõ tính chất của lời nói hơn: asked (yêu cầu); denied (phủ nhận); promised (hứa); suggested (gợi ý, đề nghị) và nhiều từ khác.
Tuy nhiên, những từ này thường không sử dụng cấu trúc said that hay told somebody that, mà sử dụng cấu trúc V-ing hoặc To + Verb, ví dụ như asked somebody + To Verb hay denied + V-ing.
Bên cạnh said và told, bạn cũng có thể sử dụng nhiều từ “nói” khác để diễn tả chính xác tính chất của lời phát biểu:
- Asked: yêu cầu
- Denied: phủ nhận
- Promised: hứa
- Suggested: gợi ý, đề nghị
Lưu ý: những từ này thường không sử dụng cấu trúc said that hay told somebody that, mà sử dụng cấu trúc V-ing hoặc To+Verb, ví dụ như asked somebody + To-verb hay denied + V-ing.
Động từ giới thiệu trong câu gián tiếp thường được chia ở thì quá khứ và liên từ “that” có thể được lược bỏ.
Ví dụ: He told her (that) he didn’t love her anymore. (Anh ấy nói với cô ấy (rằng) anh ấy không còn yêu cô ấy nữa).
Bước 2: “lùi thì” động từ trong câu tường thuật
Thông thường những câu tường thuật gián tiếp sẽ được lùi một thì so với câu trực tiếp ban đầu. Dưới đây là bảng hướng dẫn lùi thì.
|Câu tường thuật trực tiếp||Câu tường thuật gián tiếp|
|Simple present||Simple past|
|Present continuous||Past continuous|
|Simple past||Past perfect|
|Past continuous||Past perfect continuous|
|Present perfect||Past perfect|
|Present perfect continuous||Past perfect continuous|
|Past perfect||Past perfect|
|Simple future||Câu điều kiện ở hiện tại|
|Future continuous||Câu điều kiện tiếp diễn|
Lùi thì của các động từ khiếm khuyết (modal verb)
- Can – could
- May – might
- Must – must/had to
- Không lùi thì với các từ : ought to, should, would, could, might.
- Không lùi thì khi tường thuật về một sự thật hiển nhiên
- Không lùi thì khi câu sử dụng động từ tường thuật “say” và “tell” ở thì hiện tại.
- Minh said: “I can go to school tomorrow”.
→ Minh said that he could go to school the next day.
(Minh nói rằng anh ấy có thể đến trường vào ngày hôm sau.)
- Lan told me: “I buy this dress”.
→ Lan told me that she bought that dress.
(Lan nói với tôi rằng cô ấy mua chiếc váy đó.)
Bước 3: Đổi đại từ nhân xưng, đại từ và tính từ sở hữu
Sau khi đã tiến hành lùi thì, bước tiếp theo chính là đổi các đại từ nhân xưng, đại từ sở hữu và tính từ sở hữu sao cho phù hợp với ngữ cảnh.
Tiếp theo, việc đổi đại từ nhân xưng, đại từ sở hữu và tính từ sở hữu sao cho phù hợp với ngữ cảnh.
Sau đây là bảng quy đổi đại từ nhân xưng, đại từ sở hữu và tính từ sở hữu khi viết câu tường thuật.
|Tường thuật trực tiếp||Tường thuật gián tiếp|
|Đại từ nhân xưng||I||He, She|
|Đại từ sở hữu||Mine||His, her|
|Tính từ sở hữu||Mine||His, her|
|Tân ngữ||Me||Him, her|
Lưu ý: Trong trường hợp tường thuật dạng câu hỏi thì các đại từ này không đổi.
Bước 4:Chuyển đổi trạng từ chỉ thời gian và địa điểm
Cuối cùng, đổi trạng từ chỉ thời gian và địa điểm cũng rất cần thiết, xác , bạn tìm hiểu các quy tắc đổi dưới đây:
|Câu trực tiếp||Câu gián tiếp|
|Now||Then, at the time|
|Yesterday||Thẻ day before, the previous day|
|The day before||Two days before|
|Tomorrow||The day after, in two days time|
|This week||That week|
|Last day||The day before|
|Last week||The week before, the previous week|
|Next week||The week after, the next/following week|
Các loại câu tường thuật
Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu kể
S + said + (that) + S + V(lùi thì)
Says/say to + O → tells/tell + O
Said to + O → told+O
- She said to me”I haven’t finished my work” → She told me she hadn’t finished her work. (Cô ấy với tôi rằng cô ấy chưa hoàn thành xong công việc.)
Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu hỏi
S+asked/wanted to know/wondered+if/whether+S+V
”Are you angry?”he asked → He asked if/whether I was angry.
(Anh ta hỏi tôi tức giận à?)
S + asked(+O)/wanted to know/wondered + Wh-words + S + V.
* Says/say to + O → asks/ask + O
* Said to + O → asked + O.
”What are you talking about?”said the teacher. → The teacher asked us what we were talking about.
(Thầy hỏi chúng tôi đang nói về điều gì.)
Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu mệnh lệnh
Khẳng định: S + told + O + to-infinitive.
”Please wait for me here, Mary.”
”Tom said → Tom told Mary to wait for him there.
(Tom nói Marry đợi anh ấy ở đây.)
Phủ định: : S + told + O + not to-infinitive.
”Don’t talk in class”,the teacher said to us. →The teacher told us not to talk in class.
(Thầy nói chúng tôi không được nói chuyện trong lớp.)
Một số dạng câu tường thuật đặc biệt
SHALL/ WOULD dùng để diễn tả đề nghị, lời mời:
Tom asked: ‘Shall I bring you some tea?’
→ Tom offered to bring me some tea. (Tom đề nghị mang cho tôi ít trà.)
Tom asked: ‘Shall we meet at the theater?’
→ Tom suggested meeting at the theater.(Tom đề nghị chúng tôi đi xem phim.)
WILL/ WOULD/ CAN/ COULD dùng để diễn tả sự yêu cầu:
Tom asked: ‘Will you help me, please?’
→ Tom asked me to help him. (Tom hỏi tôi giúp anh ấy.)
Jane asked Tom: ‘Can you open the door for me, Tom?’
→ Jane asked Tom to open the door for her. (Jane hỏi Tom mở cửa cho cô ấy.)
Bài tập câu tường thuật lớp 9
Bài tập 1
Chuyển câu tường thuật trực tiếp sang gián tiếp
1. He said: “I shall expect her.”
2. He said: “I can’t find my hat.”
3. She said: “I am going to the movies tomorrow.”
4. Lan said to me: “You are looking much better.”
5. He says: “The river is rising early this year.”
6. She said to me: “I will do it if necessary I can.”
7. He said to his friend: “Did you see the accident yesterday?”
8. John said to me: “How did you come here?”
9. He said: “Have you finished your task, Nam?”
10. He said: “Yesterday evening I met Nam. He has bought a new car.”
11. She said to me: “Who is this book?”
12. Nam said to his father: “Please let me go to Paris.”
13. He said to me: “Do you like to live in Orange Country?”
14. My friend asked me: “Have you a lot of money?”
15. He said: “I can’t meet you here either today or tomorrow.”
16. They said: “We did it yesterday.”
17. “If I were you, I’d read the exam questions very carefully.” Teacher said.
Teacher advised Minh________________________________________________
18. “You had better not waste your time, Betty.” Tom said.
19. “Shut the door but don’t lock it.” I said to him.
I told ____________________________________________________________
20. “I image I’ll see Sue at the party.” John said.
21. “Don’t forget to give the book to Jane.” David said.
22. Before Tim went to bed, his father said, “Don’t forget to brush your teeth.”
Before Tim went to bed, his father reminded______________________________
23. “Is this your new calculator, Mai?” Nam asked.
24.”Tell me what you saw at the party yesterday?” I said to Tom.
25. “Do you know how far the drug store is?” The foreigner asked me.
The foreigner ______________________________________________________
26. “Will you please water the flowers for me tonight, Jim?” said the old woman.
27. I said to John, “Why aren’t you looking for a job?”
28. Nancy said: “Why didn’t you call me, John?”
29. “Remember to give your parents my regard, Lan.” Nam said.
30. “Teacher, give us better marks, please.” the puplis said.
31. Mr Smith said to her: “Where will you go on your vacation?”
Mr Smith asked____________________________________________________
32. He said: “I am very proud of my parents, Daisy.”
33. “Be modest if you are a good pupil, Lan.” said her mother.
Lan’s mother told her________________________________________________
34. “Can I use your phone?” he said to me.
35. “Whose car did you borrow last night?” I said to him.
36. “If I had any money, I’d buy you a drink.” she said to me.
37. “If I were you, I’d stop smoking.” she said to her brother.
38. “Can you lend me ten pounds?” said the boy to me.
The boy asked ____________________________________________________
39. “Don’t play with the matches!” I said to Jack.
40. “Don’t swim out too far, boys.” said the pool guard.
The pool guard warned_______________________________________________
Đáp án 1
- He said he should/would expect her.
- He said he couldn’t find his hat.
- She said she was going to the movies the next day/the following day.
- Lan told me I was looking much better.
- He says (that) the river is rising early this year.
- She told me she would do it if necessary she could.
- He asked his friend if/whether he had seen the accident the previous day.
- John asked me how I had come here.
- He asked Nam if he had finished his task.
- He said (that) the previous evening he had met Nam. He had bought a new car.
- She asked me who that book was.
- Nam told his father to let him go to Paris.
- He asked me if I liked to live in Orange County.
- My friend asked me if I had a lot of money.
- He said he couldn’t meet me here either that day or the following day.
- They said (that) they had done it the previous day.
- Teacher advised Minh to read the exam questions very carefully.
- Tom advised Betty not to waste her time.
- I told him to shut the door but not to lock it.
- John hoped to see Sue at the party.
- David reminded me to give the book to Jane.
- Before Tim went to bed, his father reminded him to brush his teeth.
- Nam asked Mai if that was her new calculator.
- I asked Tom if he could tell me what he had seen at the party the previous day
- I asked Tom to tell me what he had seen at the party the previous day.
- The foreigner asked me if I knew how far the drugstore was
- The old woman asked Jim if he would please water the flowers for her that night
- I asked John Why he wasn’t looking for a job
- Nancy wanted to know Why he hadn’t called her
- Nam said to Lan to Remember to give her parents his regard
- The pupils said the teacher to give them better marks
- Mr Smith asked her where she would go on her vacation
- He told Daisy that he was very proud of his parents
- Lan’s mother told her that if she was a good pupil, she will be modest
- He asked me if he could use my phone
- I wondered him whose car he had borrowed the night before
- She said to me that If she had any money, she would buy me a drink
- She said to her brother that If she were him, she would stop smoking
- The boy asked me if I could lend him ten pounds
- I warned Jack not to play with the matches
- The pool guard warned the boys not to swim out too far
Bài tập 2
1. “Do you like this book?”
a. My father wanted to know if I did like that book
b. My father asked me if I liked that book
c. My father told me if I liked that book
d. My father said if I liked that book
2. “Let’s go out for a walk, shall we ?”
a. She suggested going out for a walk
b. She suggested to go out for a walk
c. She suggested not to go out for a walk
d. She suggested go out for a walk
3. His wife said to him , “ Write to me as soon as you can .”
a. His wife told him to write to her as often as he can .
b. His wife told him to write to her as often as he could .
c. His wife told him writing to her as often as he could .
d. His wife told him writing to her as often as he can
4. “May I see Mr.Pike ?” the guest asked.
a. The guest asked to see Mr.Pike.
b. Mr.Pike wanted to see the guest.
c. The guest invited Mr.Pike to see.
d. Mr.Pike wanted the guest to see.
5. The lift-girl said to me, “I ‘m sorry. I can’t take you up in the lift”
a. The lift-girl invited to take me up in the lift.
b. The lift-girl agreed with me by taking me up in the lift.
c. The lift-girl told me to take her up in the lift.
d. The lift-girl refused to take me up in the lift.
6. “I will do it for you, Mary”, Peter said.
a. Peter advised Mary not to do it.
b. Peter advised Mary to do it.
c. Peter promised to do it for Mary.
d. Peter wanted Mary to do it.
7. “Susan, can you remember to buy me some sugar?” said Billy.
a. Billy advised Susan to buy him some sugar.
b. Billy reminded Susan to buy him some sugar.
c. Billy reminded Susan to buy me some sugar.
d. Billy invited Susan to buy me some sugar.
8. “Don’t talk in class”, the teacher said.
a. The teacher told his student do not talk in class.
b. The teacher told his student did not talk in class.
c. The teacher told his student not to talk in class.
d. The teacher told his student not talking in class.
9. “It is you that stolen my purse”,Mr.Pike said to the young man.
a. Mr.Pike told the young man that it was you that stole her purse.
b. Mr.Pike denied the young man of stealing her purse.
c. Mr.Pike accused the young man of stealing her purse.
d. Mr.Pike asked the young man of stealing her purse
10. “Thank you very much for your help, John,”said Daisy.
a. Daisy thanked John for helping her.
b. Daisy told John to help her.
c. Daisy wanted John to help her and said thanks.
d. Daisy would like John to help her.
11. “You cheated in the exam”,the teacher said to his students. (gian lận)
a. The teacher insisted his students on cheating in the exam.
b. The teacher prevented his students from cheating in the exam.
c. The teacher advised his students to cheat in the exam.
d. The teacher accused his students of cheating in the exam.
12. “Please give me some more money, Mum,”Daisy said.
a. Daisy protected her mother from giving her some more money
b. Daisy insisted her mother on giving her some more money.
c. Daisy dreamed of her mother giving her some more money
d. Daisy looked forward to giving her mother some more money.
13. “Why didn’t you answer my phone last night?”
a. He asked me why he hadn’t answered my phone last night
b. He asked me why I didn’t answer his phoned the night before
c. He asked me why I hadn’t answered his phone the night after
d. He asked me why I hadn’t answered his phone the night before
14. “What would you do if you were a billionaire ?” the man said to the woman
a. The man asked the woman what would she do if she were a billionaire.
b. The man asked the woman what she would do if she were a billionaire.
c. The man asked the woman what you would do if you were a billionaire.
d. The man asked the woman what would you do if you were a billionaire.
15. “If I were you, I wouldn’t lend her any money”
a. He advised me if he had been me ,he wouldn’t have lent her any money
b. He advised me to lend her any money
c.He advised me not to lend her any money
d. He advised me lend her any money
16. “Leave it there if you don’t like it”
a. He asked me to leave it here if I didn’t like it
b. He told me to leave it there if I not to like it
c. He asked me to leave it there if I didn’t like it
d. He told me to leave it here if I didn’t like it.
17. “Tell me what is happening to you”
a. He told me to tell him what was happening to me
b. He asked me to tell him what is happening to me
c. He asked me to tell me what was happening to him
d. He asked me to tell him what was happening to me
18. “What were you doing last night , Mr. John?” the police asked .
a. The police asked what were you doing last night, Mr. John.
b. The police asked Mr. John what he had been doing the night before .
c. The police asked Mr. John what he had been done the night before .
d. The police asked Mr. John what had he been doing the night before .
19. “I have seen that film twice”
a. Tom said that he had seen this film twice
b. Tom told that he had seen that film twice
c. Tom said to me that he had seen that film twice
d. Tom said that he had seen that film twice
20. “Would you mind opening the window?” I said to him
a. I said to him if he would mind opening the window
b. I asked him to open the window
c. I told him to mind opening the window
d. I asked him to mind opening the window
21. ‘You broke my glasses,’ said the woman to me.
a.The woman insisted on breaking her glasses.
b. The woman advised me to break her glasses.
c. The woman told me to break her glasses.
d. The woman blamed me for having broken her glasses
22. ‘Let me pay for the coffee. I really want to.’
a. Jenny is asked to pay for the coffee.
b. Jenny suggested paying for the coffee.
c. Jenny insisted on paying for the coffee.
d. Jenny told me to pay for the coffee
Đáp án 2
|1. b||2. a||3. b||4. b||5. d||6. c||7. b||8. c||9. c||10. a||11. d|
|12. a||13. d||14. b||15. c||16. d||17. d||18. b||19. c||20. b||21. d||22. c|
Bài tập 3
1. “Would you like to spend the weekend with us?” →They ___her to spend the weekend with them.
2. “Could you open the window please?”→ She ___him to open the window.
3. “Go to bed immediately!”→ Mary’s mother ____her to go to bed immediately.
4. “Don’t forget to post the letter!”→ He _____me to post the letter.
5. “Park the car behind the Van.”→ The instructor ____him to park the car behind the Van.
6. “Please, turn down the radio!”→Mark’s sister ____him to turn the radio down.
7. “Don’t play with the matches. They’re very dangerous.”→The teacher ____the children do not play with the matches.
8. “I’ll give you a lift to the airport. “Michelle ____to give her husbands a lift to the airport.
Đáp án 3
|1. c||2. c||3. d||4. a||5. b||6. d||7. c||8. b|
Với kiến thức và các bài tập câu tường thuật lớp 9 như đã chia sẻ, Tienganhcaptoc.vn hy vọng bạn sẽ ôn luyện dễ dàng hơn và đạt kết quả thật tốt cho kỳ thi tuyển vào lớp 10, tuyển sinh Đại học sắp tới. Tin chắc rằng khi bạn cố gắng hết mình điều bạn mong ước sẽ đến với bạn.
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